Fresh Covid-19 restrictions, supply issues and a bleak economic outlook caused volatility in the zinc market for the majority of 2022.
New mines and capacity expansions are forecast to boost global lithium production to 304kt in 2030.
As well as reductions in emissions due to the shift to renewables, diesel displacement will play a significant part in emissions reductions.
In 2023, miners are expected to continue prioritising investment in critical minerals and decarbonisation efforts.
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In the previous survey in 2020, only 36% of respondents had stated they were expecting to invest in the technology in the next two years.
Nearly 50% of respondents in a survey of more than 100 miners cited a fuel and power price increase of more than 30%.
Indonesia’s coal production is expected to see growth in 2022, with the government aiming at increasing coal output to 663Mt.
The Indian Government has adopted several measures to boost the domestic supply of coal.
In China, iron ore production is expected to decline by 6.9% to 247.6Mt.